References

About PEDSAFE

  1. Zegeer, C.V. et al., Pedestrian Facilities User Guide - Providing Safety and Mobility, March 2002.

Background

  1. United States Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey.
  2. Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities, A Recommended Practice, Institue of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, March 1998.
  3. Appleyard, Donald, Livable Streets, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1981.
  4. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Roadside Design Guide, Washington, DC, October 1988.
  5. Axelson, P.W., D.Y. Chesney, D.V. Galvan, J.B. Kirshbaum, P.E. Longmuir, C. Lyons, and K.M. Wong, Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, July 1999.

Crash Statistics

  1. Zegeer, C.V. and C.B. Seiderman, “Designing for Pedestrians,” Chapter 19, Traffic Safety Toolbox-A Primer on Traffic Safety, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999.
  2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts 2003, Washington, DC, 2004.
  3. Zegeer, C., J. Stutts, H. Huang, M. Zhou, and E. Rodgman, Analysis of Elderly Pedestrian Accidents and Recommended Countermeasures, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 1993.
  4. Campbell, B., C. Zegeer, H. Huang, and M. Cynecki, Pedestrian Safety Research in the U.S., Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, October 1999.
  5. National Safety Council, Injury Facts-2000 Edition, Itasca, IL, 2000.
  6. Staplin, L., K. Lococo, S. Byington, and D. Harkey, Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Report No. FHWA-RD-01-103, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, October 2001.
  7. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Fatal Accident Reporting System 1989—A Decade of Progress, Washington, DC, 1990.
  8. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, General Estimates System 1989—A Review of Information on Police-Reported Traffic Crashes in the United States, Washington, DC, 1990.
  9. Zegeer, C., J. Stutts, and W. Hunter, Pedestrian and Bicycle, Volume VI: Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features, Report No. FHWA-RD-91-049, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, November 1992.
  10. U.K. Department of Transportation, Killing Speed and Saving Lives, London, 1987.

Crash Analysis

  1. Snyder, M., and R. Knoblauch, Pedestrian Safety: The Identification of Precipitating Factors and Possible Countermeasures (2 Vols.), Report No. DOT-HS-800-403, NHTSA, Washington, DC, January 1971.
  2. Knoblauch, R., W. Moore, Jr., and P. Schmitz, Pedestrian Accidents Occurring on Freeways: An Investigation of Causative Factors, Accident Data, Report No. FHWA-RD-78-159/171, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1978.
  3. Knoblauch, R., Causative Factors and Countermeasures for Rural and Suburban Pedestrian Accidents: Accident Data Collection and Analyses, Report No. DOT HS-802-266, NHTSA, Washington, DC, June 1977.
  4. Hunter, W., J. Stutts, W. Pein, and C. Cox, Pedestrians and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s, Report No. FHWA-RD-95-163, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, June 1996.
  5. D.L. Harkey, J. Mekemson, M.C. Chen, and K. Krull, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool, Product No. FHWA-RD-99-192, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December, 1999.
  6. Zegeer, C. and C. Seiderman, “Designing for Pedestrians,” Chapter 19, The Traffic Safety Toolbox—A Primer on Traffic Safety, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999.
  7. Zegeer, C.V. and S.F. Zegeer, Pedestrians and Traffic Control Measures, NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice No. 139, Transportation Research Board, November 1988.
  8. Zegeer, C., “Engineering and Physical Measures to Improve Pedestrian Safety,” in Effective Highway Accident Countermeasures, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, August 1990.
  9. Zegeer, C. and S. Zegeer., “Engineering: Designing a Safer Walking Environment,” Traffic Safety, Vol. 88, No. 1 (January/February 1988).

Countermeasures

Pedestrian Facility Design

  1. Campbell, B., C. Zegeer, H. Huang, and M. Cynecki, Pedestrian Safety Research in the U.S., Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, Oct ober 1999.
  2. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Design and Safety of Pedestrian Fatalities, March 1998.
  3. Kirschbaum, J. et al., Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part IIof II:Best Practices Design Guide, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, September 2001.
  4. Draft Guidelines for Accessible Public Rights of Way, United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC, June 2002.
  5. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Federal Highway Administration,Washington, DC, 1988.
  6. Zegeer, C., J. Stuart, and H. Huang, Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2001.
  7. Accessible Rights-Way-: A Design Guide, United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, Washington, DC, November 1999.
  8. Moore, R.I. and S.J. Older, “Pedestrians and Motorists Are Compatible in Today‚Äôs World,” Traffic Engineering, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, September 1965.
  9. Bowman, B.L., J.J. Fruin, and C.V. Zegeer, Planning, Design, and Maintenance of Pedestrian Facilities, Report No. FHWA-IP-88-019, Federal Highway Administration, October 1988.
  10. Robinson, B.W., et al., Roundabouts: An Informational Guide, Publication No. FHWA-RD-00-067, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, June 2000.

Roadway Design

  1. Kirschbaum, J. et al., Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part IIof II:Best Practices Design Guide, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, September 2001.

Intersection Design

  1. Robinson, B.W., et al., Roundabouts: An Informational Guide, Publication No. FHWA-RD-00-067, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, June 2000.

Traffic Calming

  1. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Calming: State of the Practice, August 1999.
  2. Zegeer, C.V., J.Stuart, and H. Huang, Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1999.
  3. Institute of Transportation Engineers and the Federal Highway Administration, Traffic Calming State of the Art, August 1999.
  4. City of Cambridge, MA, Preliminary Results: Effects of Columbia Street Traffic Calming Project on Driver Behavior, April 2000.

Signals and Signs

  1. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Washington, DC, 2003.
  2. Zegeer, C.V., K.S. Opiela, and M.J. Cynecki, Pedestrian Signalization Alternatives, Report No. FHWA/RD-83-102, Federal Highway Safety Administration, Washington, DC, 1983.
  3. Van Houten, Ron et al., Field Evaluation of a Leading Pedestrian Interval Signal Phase at Three Urban Intersections, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, VA, April 1997.
  4. Van Houten, Ron et al., Use of Animation in LED Pedestrian Signals to Improve Pedestrian Safety, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, VA, 1998.
  5. Hughes, Ronald, H. Huang, C.V. Zegeer, and M. Cynecki, Evaluation of Automated Pedestrian Detection at Signalized Intersections, Report No. FHWA/RD-00/097, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, August 2000.
  6. Zegeer, C.V. and M.J. Cynecki, Methods of Increasing Pedestrian Safety at Right-Turn-on-Red Intersections, Report No. FHWA/RD-85/047, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, March 1985.
  7. Van Houten, Ron and J.E. Louis Malenfant, Canadian Research on Pedestrian Safety, Report No. FHWA/RD-99/090, Federal Highway Administration,Washington, DC, 1999.

Other Measures

  1. Zegeer, C.V. and S.F. Zegeer, Pedestrians and Traffic Control Measures, NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice No. 139, Transportation Research Board, November 1988.
   

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration