A total of 49 different pedestrian countermeasures
are presented in this application
that address various types of roadway
situations. To assist engineers and
planners who may want further guidance
on which measures are appropriate
to address certain types of pedestrian
crashes, an interactive matrix of
12 pedestrian crash groupings by
seven categories of countermeasures
is provided by clicking on the graphic
to the right.
The dots in the matrix
suggest the countermeasure categories
that may be primary candidates to address
a given crash type, which takes into
account whether the crash type occurs
at an intersection or midblock location.
The secondary benefits are not included
in the matrix.
For example, the primary purpose of a
pedestrian street is to address midblock
crash types (e.g., dartout, dash). Although
a pedestrian may have the secondary benefit
of eliminating a "through vehicle at intersection" crash type, it is not a suggested treatment for this crash type. Instead,
such countermeasures as mini-circles, intersection diverters, etc., are suggested in the matrix to address "through vehicle at intersection" crashes.
To illustrate how to use the matrix, consider
the second crash type on the matrix ("Multiple
Threat/Trapped"). This is a crash involving
an unsignalized crossing on a multilane
road, where one vehicle stops to let
a pedestrian cross the street. The pedestrian steps
into the street in front of the stopped
vehicle and then continues into the adjacent
lane in front of an oncoming vehicle
and is struck. The driver of the second vehicle may
not see the pedestrian, since the sight
distance is typically blocked by the first (stopped)
The matrix shows that six out of the seven countermeasure categories
contain potential countermeasures that
may reduce the probability of this type
of crash, depending on the site conditions.
To view the specific applicable countermeasures
in each category, click on the dot. A
drop-down select box will appear listing
the names of the applicable countermeasures.
These countermeasures include curb extensions
(which improve sight distance between
pedestrians and motorists), pedestrian
crossing islands (which provide places
of refuge in the middle of the street),
crosswalk enhancements, and other possible
countermeasures. Select a countermeasure
from the drop-down box to view the page
containing its detailed description.
This matrix is intended to give general information
on candidate measures that should be considered
when trying to reduce a pattern of pedestrian
crashes at a location or roadway section.
Many pedestrian crashes are the direct result
of careless or illegal driver behavior and/or
unsafe pedestrian behavior. Many of these
crashes cannot necessarily be prevented by
roadway improvements alone. In such cases,
pedestrian and/or motorist education and enforcement
activities may be helpful.