Crash Analysis
      Use the Interactive Matrix
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Crash-Related Countermeasures
A total of 49 different pedestrian countermeasures are presented in this application that address various types of roadway situations. To assist engineers and planners who may want further guidance on which measures are appropriate to address certain types of pedestrian crashes, an interactive matrix of 12 pedestrian crash groupings by seven categories of countermeasures is provided by clicking on the graphic to the right.

The dots in the matrix suggest the countermeasure categories that may be primary candidates to address a given crash type, which takes into account whether the crash type occurs at an intersection or midblock location. The secondary benefits are not included in the matrix.

For example, the primary purpose of a pedestrian street is to address midblock crash types (e.g., dartout, dash). Although a pedestrian may have the secondary benefit of eliminating a "through vehicle at intersection" crash type, it is not a suggested treatment for this crash type. Instead, such countermeasures as mini-circles, intersection diverters, etc., are suggested in the matrix to address "through vehicle at intersection" crashes.

To illustrate how to use the matrix, consider the second crash type on the matrix ("Multiple Threat/Trapped"). This is a crash involving an unsignalized crossing on a multilane road, where one vehicle stops to let a pedestrian cross the street. The pedestrian steps into the street in front of the stopped vehicle and then continues into the adjacent lane in front of an oncoming vehicle and is struck. The driver of the second vehicle may not see the pedestrian, since the sight distance is typically blocked by the first (stopped) vehicle.

The matrix shows that six out of the seven countermeasure categories contain potential countermeasures that may reduce the probability of this type of crash, depending on the site conditions. To view the specific applicable countermeasures in each category, click on the dot. A drop-down select box will appear listing the names of the applicable countermeasures. These countermeasures include curb extensions (which improve sight distance between pedestrians and motorists), pedestrian crossing islands (which provide places of refuge in the middle of the street), crosswalk enhancements, and other possible countermeasures. Select a countermeasure from the drop-down box to view the page containing its detailed description.

This matrix is intended to give general information on candidate measures that should be considered when trying to reduce a pattern of pedestrian crashes at a location or roadway section. Many pedestrian crashes are the direct result of careless or illegal driver behavior and/or unsafe pedestrian behavior. Many of these crashes cannot necessarily be prevented by roadway improvements alone. In such cases, pedestrian and/or motorist education and enforcement activities may be helpful.


U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration

Crash Analysis