Guides, Handbooks and References

There are a significant number additional resources related to the topic of pedestrian safety and mobility. Provided in this section are many of the national and international guides, practitioner handbooks, research reports, and other general references.

Domestic Guides and Handbooks

  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Washington, DC, 2001.
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, Washington, DC, 1999.
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Guide Specifications for Bridge Railings, Washington, DC, 1989.
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Roadway Design Guide, 3rd Edition, Washington, DC, 2002.
  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 17th Edition, Washington, DC, 2002.
  • American Planning Association, Bicycle Facility Planning, Planning Advisory Service Report 459, Chicago, IL, 1995.
  • Axelson, P.W., D.A. Chesney, D.V. Galvan, J.B. Kirschbaum, P.E. Longmuir, C. Lyons, and K.M. Wong, Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part I of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1999, available online at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bikeped/access-1.htm, accessed June 10, 2004.
  • Bowman, B.L., J.J. Fruin, and C.V. Zegeer, Handbook on Planning, Design, and Maintenance of Pedestrian Facilities, Report No. FHWA-IP-88-019, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, March 1989.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Implementing Pedestrian Improvements at the Local Level, Washington, DC, 1998.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Washington, DC, 2003, available online at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov, accessed August 2, 2004.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Pedestrian/Bicyclist Safety Resource Set (CD-ROM), Report No. FHWA-SA-00-005, U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000, available online at http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fourthlevel/newprod.htm#set, accessed April 24, 2004.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Priorities and Guidelines for Providing Places for Pedestrian to Walk Along Streets and Highways, Washington, DC, September 15, 2021 (draft).
  • Florida Department of Transportation, Florida’s Pedestrian Planning and Design Guidelines, Tallahassee, FL, 1996.
  • Florida Department of Transportation, Florida School Crossing Guard Training Guidelines, available online at http://www.dot.state.fl.us/Safety/ped_bike/brochures/pdf/xingguard.pdf.
  • Harkey, D., J. Mekemson, M. Chen, and K. Krull, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT) User’s Manual, Report No. FHWA-RD-99-192, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, June 2000.
  • Hawley, L., C. Henson, A. Hulse, and R. Brindle, Towards Traffic Calming: A Practitioners’ Manual of Implemented Local Area Traffic Management and Blackspot Devices, Report No. CR 126, Federal Office of Road Safety, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, 1992.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities: A Recommended Practice of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, March 1998.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, “Guidelines for Prohibition of Turns on Red,” ITE Journal, Vol. 54, No. 2, February 1984, pp. 17-19.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Guidelines for Residential Subdivision Street Design: An ITE Recommended Practice, Washington, DC, 1993.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Guidelines for Urban Major Street Design: An ITE Recommended Practice, Washington, DC, 1984.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, The Traffic Safety ToolBox: A Primer on Traffic Safety, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traditional Neighborhood Development Street Design Guidelines: Recommended Practice, Washington, DC, 1999.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Engineering Handbook, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1999 (draft).
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Transportation and Traffic Engineering Handbook, Washington, DC, 1990.
  • Karplus, K., Guidelines for Choosing a Safe Bicycle Route to School, available online at http://www.cse.ucsc.edu/~karplus/bike/safe-route-to-school.html, accessed April 06, 2004.
  • Kirschbaum, J.B., P.W. Axelson, P.E. Longmuir, K.M. Mispagel, J.A. Stein, and D.A. Yamada, Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access, Part II of II: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2001, available online at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/sidewalk2/, accessed June 10, 2004.
  • Maricopa Association of Governments, Pedestrian Area Policies and Design Guidelines, Phoenix, AZ, October 1995.
  • National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, Uniform Vehicle Code, 1992.
  • National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Planning and Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and Developing Rural Areas, Report No. 294B, Washington, DC, June 1987.
  • National Research Council, Transportation Research Board, Highway Capacity Manual 2000, Washington, DC, 1999 (draft).
  • Office of Transportation Engineering and Development, Pedestrian Program, Pedestrian Design Guidelines Notebook, Portland, OR, 1997.
  • Oregon Department of Transportation, Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, 1995.
  • Planning Division, Median Handbook, Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL, 1997, NOT AVAILABLE ONLINE.
  • Pline, J., ed., “Chapter 13: Pedestrians,” Traffic Control Devices Handbook, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 2001.
  • Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee, Building a True Community, U.S. Access Board, 2001, available online at http://www.access-board.gov/prowac/commrept/index.htm.
  • Puget Sound Regional Council, Association of Washington Cities, and County Road Administration Board, Pedestrian Facilities Guidebook: Incorporating Pedestrians Into Washington’s Transportation System, Washington State Department of Transportation, September 1997.
  • “School Trip Safety Guidelines,” ITE Journal, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 1985.
  • Traffic Engineering Council Speed Humps Task Force, Guidelines for the Design and Application of Speed Humps, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 1997.
  • U.S. Access Board and the Federal Highway Administration, Accessible Rights-of-Way: A Design Guide, Washington, DC, available online at http://www.access-board.gov/prowac/guide/PROWGuide.htm, accessed May 19, 2004.
  • U.S. Department of Justice, The Americans With Disabilities Act Title II Technical Assistance Manual, Covering State and Local Governments, November 1993.
  • Zegeer, C.V., C. Seiderman, P. Lagerwey, M. Cynecki, M. Ronkin, and R. Schneider, Pedestrian Facilities User Guide: Providing Safety and Mobility, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2002, available online at http://www.walkinginfo.org/pdf/peduserguide/peduserguide.pdf, accessed April 23, 2004.
  • Zegeer, C.V., Portland Pedestrian Crossing Toolbox for Pedestrian Program, Bureau of Transportation Engineering and Development, City of Portland, June 1995.

International Guides and Handbooks

  • Cairney, P., Pedestrian Safety in Australia, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1999.
  • Davies, D.G., Research, Development, and Implementation of Pedestrian Safety Facilities in the United Kingdom, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1999.
  • Denmark Ministry of Transport, An Improved Traffic Environment—A Catalogue of Ideas, Report 106, Road Data Laboratory, Road Standard Division, Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1993.
  • Denmark Ministry of Transport, Speed Management: National Practice and Experiences in Denmark, The Netherlands, and in the United Kingdom, Report No. 167, Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, 1999.
  • Devon County Council Engineering and Planning, Traffic-Calming Guidelines, Great Britain, 1991.
  • Dutch Centre for Research and Contract Standardization in Civil and Traffic Engineering, Sign Up for the Bike: Design Manual for a Cycle-Friendly Infrastructure, The Netherlands, September 1994.
  • Federal Highway Administration, FHWA Study Tour for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands, Report No. FHWA/PL-95/006, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • Gilleran, B.F. and G. Pates, Bicycling and Walking in the Nineties and Beyond: Applying Scandinavian Experience to America’s Challenges, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1999.
  • Hummel, T., Dutch Pedestrian Safety Research Review, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1999.
  • Standards Association of Australia, Australian Standard: Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Part 13: Local Area Traffic Management, North Sydney, Australia, 1991.
  • Transportation Association of Canada and the Canadian Institute of Transportation Engineers, Canadian Guide to Neighbourhood Traffic Calming, December 1998.
  • Van Houten, R. and L. Malenfant, Canadian Research on Pedestrian Safety, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1999.

Articles, Research Reports and General References

  • American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Right-Turn-on-Red Task Force, Safety and Delay Impacts of Right-Turn-on-Red, Washington, DC, 1979.
  • American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard No. ASTM1501-99e1, Standard Specification for Nighttime Photometric Performance of Retroreflective Pedestrian Markings for Visibility Enhancement, West Conshohocken, PA, 2003, available online at http://www.astm.org, accessed July 23, 2004.
  • Appleyard, D., Livable Streets, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1981.
  • Barlow, J.M., B.L. Bentzen, and L. Tabor, Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Synthesis and Guide to Best Practice, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, August 2003, available online at http://www.walkinginfo.org/aps, accessed August 2, 2004.
  • Bentzen, B.L., J. Barlow, and L. Franck, “Addressing Barriers to Blind Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections,” ITE Journal, September 2000.
  • Bentzen, B.L., J. Barlow, and L.S. Tabor, Detectable Warnings: Synthesis of U.S. and International Practice, U.S. Access Board, Washington, DC, 2000.
  • Blomberg, R.D., A. Hale, and D.F. Preusser, Conspicuity for Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Definition of the Problem, Development and Test of Countermeasures, Report No. DOT HS 806 563, NHTSA, Washington, DC, 1984.
  • Blomberg, R.D., D.F. Preusser, A. Hale, and W.A. Leaf, Experimental Field Test of Proposed Pedestrian Safety Messages, NHTSA, Washington, DC, 1983.
  • Bowman, B.L. and R.L. Vecellio, “Effects of Urban and Suburban Median Types on Both Vehicular and Pedestrian Safety,” Transportation Research Record 1445, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1994, pp. 169-179.
  • Bowman, B.L., J.J. Fruin, and C.V. Zegeer, Planning, Design, and Maintenance of Pedestrian Facilities, Report No. FHWA-IP-88-019, Federal Highway Administration, 1988.
  • Britt, J., A. Bergman, and J. Moffat, “Law Enforcement, Pedestrian Safety, and Driver Compliance with Crosswalk Laws: Evaluation of a Four-Year Campaign in Seattle,” Transportation Research Record 1485, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1995.
  • “Bronx ‘Safe Routes To School’ Campaign Blazes New Path,” Transportation Alternatives Magazine, September/October 1998, pp. 12-13, available online at http://www.transalt.org/press/magazine/985SepOct/12-13saferoutes.html, accessed April 6, 2004.
  • Brookline Transportation Department, Neighborhood Traffic Calming Program for Residential Streets, Town of Brookline, MA, 1996.
  • Brownfield, D.J., “Environmental Areas: Interim Report on a Before-After Accident Study,” Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 21, No. 5, May 1980.
  • Burden, D., Walkable and Bicycle-Friendly Communities, Florida Department of Transportation, 1996.
  • Burrington, S.H., “Restoring the Rule of Law and Respect for Communities in Transportation,” Environmental Law Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, New York University, 1996.
  • Campbell, B., C.V. Zegeer, H. Huang, and M. Cynecki, A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the U.S., Submitted to Federal Highway Administration, March 2002.
  • Campbell, B., C.V. Zegeer, H. Huang, and M. Cynecki, Pedestrian Safety Research in the U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1999.
  • Carroll, J. and B. Bentzen, The Braille Forum, Vol. 38, American Council of the Blind Survey of Signalized Intersection Accessibility, 1999, pp. 11-15.
  • Centre D’Études Techniques de l’Equipment de l’Ouest, Evolution de la Sécurité Sur Les Carrefours Giratoires, Centre D’Etudes Techniques de l’Equipment de l’Ouest, Nantes, France, 1986.
  • Citizens Advocating Responsible Transportation (CART), Traffic Calming—The Solution to Urban Traffic and a New Vision for Neighborhood Livability, Ashgrove, Australia, 1989 (reprinted by Sensible Transportation Options for People (STOP), Oregon, 1993).
  • City of Cambridge, MA, Preliminary Results: Effects of Columbia Street Traffic Calming Project on Driver Behavior, 2000.
  • City of Portland, Offices of Transportation, Transportation Engineering and Development, Pedestrian Transportation Program, Portland Pedestrian Master Plan, Portland, OR, June 1998.
  • Clarke, A. and M.J. Dornfeld, “Case Study No. 19: Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques - Their Effects on Bicycling and Pedestrians,” National Bicycling and Walking Study, Report No. FHWA-PD-93-028, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, January 1994.
  • Cleven, A.M. and R.D. Blomberg. “Case Study No. 12: Incorporating Consideration of Bicyclists and Pedestrians into Education Programs,” National Bicycling and Walking Study. Report No. FHWAPD-92-036, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1992.
  • Cline, E., “Design of Speed Humps...Or The Kinder, Gentler Speed Hump,” Presented at the 45th California Symposium on Transportation Issues, May 12-14, 1993.
  • Conservation Law Foundation, City Routes, City Rights: Building Livable Neighborhoods and Environmental Justice by Fixing Transportation, June 1998.
  • Conservation Law Foundation, Road Kill: How Solo Driving Runs Down the Economy, May 1994.
  • Conservation Law Foundation, Take Back Your Streets: How to Protect Communities From Asphalt and Traffic, May 1995.
  • County Surveyors Society, Traffic Calming in Practice, Landor Publishing Ltd., 1994.
  • Delft Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Cities Make Room for Cyclists, Delft, The Netherlands, August 1995.
  • Denmark Ministry of Transport, An Improved Traffic Environment: A Catalogue of Ideas, Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, 1993.
  • Denmark Ministry of Transport, Bicycle Markings: Safety Effects at Signalized Intersections, Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, 1996.
  • Denmark Ministry of Transport, Safety of Cyclists in Urban Areas: Danish Experiences, Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, 1994.
  • Denmark Ministry of Transport, The Traffic Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in Urban Areas, Traffic Safety and Environment, Road Directorate, 1996.
  • Design Commission, Engineering Department and Strategic Planning Office, Making Streets that Work, Seattle, Washington, April 1995.
  • Duperrex, O., I. Roberts, and F. Bunn, “Safety Education of Pedestrians for Injury Prevention,” Cochrane Review, The Cochrane Library, 2002.
  • Engwicht, D., Reclaiming Our Cities and Towns: Better Living With Less Traffic, New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, PA, 1993.
  • Engwicht, D., “What Is Second-Generation Traffic-Calming?” Creative Communities International, available online at http://www.lesstraffic.com/Articles/Traffic/SGTC.htm, accessed April 06, 2004.
  • Environmental Working Group, Bicycle Federation of American and Surface Transportation Policy Project, Share the Road: Let’s Make America Bicycle Friendly, May 1997.
  • Federal Highway Administration, A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the U.S. and Abroad, Washington, DC, February 1999.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Bicycle Safety-Related Research Synthesis, Washington, DC, April 1995.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Bicycling & Walking in the Nineties and Beyond: Applying the Scandinavian Experience to America’s Challenge, Washington, DC, November 1994.
  • Federal Highway Administration, “Case Study No. 12: Incorporating Consideration of Bicyclists and Pedestrians into Education Programs,” National Bicycling and Walking Study, Report No. FHWA 343 120, 85904, Washington, DC, 1993.
  • Federal Highway Administration, “Case Study No. 19: Traffic Calming, Auto-Restricted Zones and Other Traffic Management Techniques,” National Bicycling and Walking Study, Washington, DC, 1994
  • Federal Highway Administration, “Case Study No. 21: Integrating Bicycle and Pedestrian Considerations Into State and Local Transportation Planning, Design, and Operations,” National Bicycling and Walking Study, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Flexibility in Highway Design, Washington, DC, 1997.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Older Pedestrian Characteristics for Use in Highway Design, Report No. FHWA-RD-93-177, Washington, DC, 1993.
  • Federal Highway Administration, Safety Effectiveness of Highway Design Features, Volume VI: Pedestrians and Bicyclists, Washington, DC, 1991.
  • Freedman, M., M.S. Janoff, B.W. Koth, and W. McCunney, Fixed Illumination for Pedestrian Protection, Report No. FHWA-RD-76-8, Federal Highway Administration, 1975.
  • Gehl, J., Life Between Buildings, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1987.
  • Gliewe R., M. Limbourg, and B. Pappritz, “German Examples of Safer Routes to School,” Paper presented at the Road Safety Education Conference in York, United Kingdom, June 1998, available online at http://www.uni-essen.de/~qpd400/texte.ml/york.html, accessed April 7, 2004.
  • Greatrix, G. and J. Smithies, Factors Which Affect the Conspicuity of Pedestrians, NOT AVAILABLE ONLINE.
  • Hoxie, R.E., L.Z. Rubenstein, H. Hoenig, and B.R. Gallagher, “The Older Pedestrian,” Journal of the American Geriatric Society, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1994, pp. 444-450.
  • Hu, P.F. and J. Young, 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey: Summary of Travel Trends, Report No. FHWA-PL-92-027, Washington, DC, Federal Highway Administration, March 1992, available online at http://npts.ornl.gov/npts/1990/.
  • Hu, P.F., and J. Young, 1990 NPTS Databook: Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, Report No. FHWA-PL-94-010A, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, November 1993.
  • Huang, H.F., C.V. Zegeer, R. Nassi, and B. Fairfax, The Effects of Innovative Pedestrian Signs at Unsignalized Locations: A Tale of Three Treatments, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2000, available online at http://www.walkinginfo.org/task_orders/to_11/3signs00.pdf, accessed April 23, 2004.
  • Huang, H.F. and C.V. Zegeer, The Effects of Pedestrian Countdown Signals in Lake Buena Vista, Prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, November 2000.
  • Hughes, R., H. Huang, C.V. Zegeer, and M. Cynecki, Evaluation of Automated Pedestrian Detection at Signalized Intersections, Report No. FHWA-RD-00-097, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2000.
  • Hunter, W., J. Stutts, W. Pein, and C. Cox, Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990’s, Report No. FHWA-RD-95-163, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1995.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers and the Federal Highway Administration, Traffic Calming State of the Art, Washington, DC, August 1999.
  • Institute of Transportation Engineers, Residential Street Design and Traffic Control, Wolfgang Hamburger et al., Washington, DC, 1989.
  • Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, “Three-Second Head Start Gives Pedestrians Advantage at Intersections,” Status Report, Vol. 32, No. 7, August 30, 1997, p.5.
  • Jacobs, A., Great Streets, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1994.
  • Jacquemart, G., NCHRP Synthesis 264: Modern Roundabout Practice in the United States, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Synthesis of Highway Practice 264, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1998.
  • Japan Road Association, Accident Prevention Effects of Road Safety Devices: Annual Report, 1969.
  • Klik, M., and A. Faghri, “A Comparative Evaluation of Speed Humps and Deviations.” Transportation Quarterly. Vol. 47, No. 3, July 1993, pp. 457-469.
  • Knoblauch, R.L., B.H. Tustin, S.A. Smith, and M.T. Petrucha, Investigation of Exposure-Based Pedestrian Accident Areas: Crosswalks, Sidewalks, Local Streets and Major Arterials, Report No. FHWA/RD-87-038, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1987.
  • Lalani, N., Institute of Transportation Engineers, Alternative Treatments for At-Grade Pedestrian Crossings, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Pedestrian and Bicycle Task Force, Washington, DC, 2001.
  • Loughery, D.A. and M. Katzman, Montgomery County, Maryland Speed Hump Program Evaluation Report, Prepared for presentation to the Montgomery County Council, January 1998.
  • Lovemark, O., Pedestrians in Town Centers: A Summary of Some Research Projects, Pedestrian Safety Project, Report No. 27, North American Treaty Organization Committee on the Challenge of Modern Society, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, March 1974.
  • Macbeth, A., “Balliol Street,” Traffic Calming 1995, Proceedings from 21 papers, Ontario Traffic Conference, November 1995.
  • Malenfant, L. and R. Van Houten, “Increasing the Percentage of Drivers Yielding to Pedestrians in Three Canadian Cities with a Multifaceted Safety Program,” Health Education Research, Vol. 5, 1989, pp. 274-279.
  • McDonald, P.E. and J.R. Jarvis, The Use of Road Humps on Residential Streets in the Shire of Corio, ARRB Internal Report, Report No. AIR 335-2, Australian Road Research Board, 1981.
  • McGee, H.W., “Accident Experience with Right-Turn-on-Red,” Transportation Research Record 644, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 66-75.
  • McMahon, P.J., A.J. Khattak, C. Duncan, J.R. Stewart, and C.V. Zegeer, An Analysis of Factors Contributing to “Walking along Roadway” Crashes: Research Study and Guidelines for Sidewalks and Walkways, Report No. FHWA-RD-01-101, Federal Highway Administration, 2002.
  • Moore, R.I. and Older, S.J., “Pedestrians and Motorists are Compatible in Today’s World,” Traffic Engineering, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 1965.
  • National Highway Institute, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Accommodation, Report No. FHWA-HI-96-028, May 1996.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Fatal Accident Reporting System, Washington, DC, 1992.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, General Estimates System 1989: A Review of Information on Police-Reported Traffic Crashes in the United States, Washington, DC, 1990.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month Program Planner, available online at http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/outreach/safesobr/17qp/contents.html.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Pedestrian Safety: The Identification of Precipitating Factors and Possible Countermeasures, Report No. FH-11-73/2, Washington, DC, 1971.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Traffic Safety Facts, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC, 2000.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Zone Guide for Pedestrian Safety Shows How to Make Systematic Improvements,” Traffic Tech, No. 181, May 1998, available online at http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/outreach/traftech/pub/tt181.html.
  • Nee, J. and M.E. Hallenbeck, A Motorist and Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis Relating to Pedestrian Safety Improvements, Final Report, Research Project T1803, Task 16 Pedestrian Safety Prepared for the Washington State Transportation Commission by the Washington State Transportation Center, 2003.
  • Nitzburg, M. and R. L. Knoblauch, An Evaluation of High-Visibility Crosswalk Treatments— Clearwater, Florida, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 2001, available online at http://www.walkinginfo.org/task_orders/to_11/clearwtr.PDF, accessed April 23, 2004.
  • Owens, D.A., R.J. Antonoff, and E.L. Francis, “Biological Motion and Nighttime Pedestrian Conspicuity,” Human Factors, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1994, pp. 718, 732.
  • Pedestrian Facilities for Transit Access Project, Evaluation of Needs and Constraints, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., June 1996.
  • Pegrum, B.V., The Application of Certain Traffic Management Techniques and Their Effect on Road Safety, National Road Safety Symposium, March 1972.
  • Polus, A. and A. Katz, “An Analysis of Nighttime Pedestrian Accidents at Specially Illuminated Crosswalks,” Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 10, No. 3, September 1978.
  • Preusser, D.F. and A.K. Lund, “And Keep on Looking: A Film To Reduce Pedestrian Crashes Among 9 to 12 Year Olds,” Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1988, pp. 177-195.
  • Preusser, D.F., W.A. Leaf, K.B. Debartla, and R.D. Blomberg, The Effects of Right-Turn-on-Red on Pedestrian and Bicycle Accidents, Report No. NHTSA-DOT/HS-806/182, Dunlap and Associates, Inc., Darien, CT, 1981.
  • Pucher, J. and L. Dijkstra, “Making Walking and Cycling Safety: Lessons from Europe,” Transportation Quarterly Vol. 54 No. 3, Summer 2000.
  • Reploge, M. and H. Parcells, Linking Bicycle/Pedestrian Facilities With Transit, October 1992.
  • Replogle, M., “Case Study 17: Bicycle and Pedestrian Policies and Programs in Asia, Australia, and New Zealand,” National Bicycling and Walking Study, Report No. FHWA-PD-93-016, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, April 1992.
  • Reschovsky, C., “Journey to Work: 2000,” Census 2000 Brief, US Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Washington, DC, March 2004, available online at http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-33.pdf, accessed April 23, 2003.
  • Richardson, E. and J.R. Jarvis, The Use of Road Humps on Residential Streets in the City of Stirling, Western Australia, ARRB Internal Report, AIR 335-3, Australian Road Research Board, 1981.
  • Roberts, I., T. Ashton, R. Dunn, and T. Lee-Joe, “Preventing Child Pedestrian Injury: Pedestrian Education or Traffic Calming?” Australian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 18, 1994, pp. 209-212.
  • Rodale Press, Inc., Pathways for People, June 1992.
  • Route 50 Corridor Coalition, A Traffic-Calming Plan for Virginia’s Rural Route 50 Corridor, Middleburg, VA, 1996.
  • Schieber, R.A. and M.E. Vegega, National Strategies for Advancing Child Pedestrian Safety, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, October 2001, available online at http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pedestrian/.
  • Schieber, R.A. and M.E. Vegega, eds., “Reducing Childhood Pedestrian Injuries: Summary of a Multidisciplinary Conference,” Injury Prevention, Supplement I, June 8, 2002.
  • Schoon, C. and J. Van Minnen, The Safety of Roundabouts in the Netherlands, SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Traffic Engineering and Control, 1994.
  • Seiderman, C., “Traveling at the Speed of Life,” Conservation Matters, No. 4, Fall 1997, pp. 20-23.
  • Shankar, U., Pedestrian Roadway Fatalities, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Report No. DOT HS 809 456, Washington, DC, 2003, available online at http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/Rpts/2003/809-456.pdf, accessed April 23, 2004.
  • Smith, D. et al., State-of-the-Art Residential Traffic Management, Report No. FHW-RD-80-092, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 1980.
  • Smith, S. et al., Planning and Implementing Pedestrian Facilities in Suburban and Developing Rural Areas, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 294A, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, June 1987.
  • Snyder, M.B. and R.L. Knoblauch, Pedestrian Safety: The Identification of Precipitating Factors and Possible Countermeasures, Report No. DOT-FH-11-7312, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, 1971.
  • Troutbeck, R.J., “Capacity and Design of Roundabouts in Australia,” Transportation Research Record 1398, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1993, pp. 68-74.
  • U.K. Department of Transport, Killing Speed and Saving Lives, London, 1987.
  • Untermann, Richard K., Accommodating the Pedestrian, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc., New York, 1984.
  • U.S. Department of Transportation and Rails to Trails Conservancy, Improving Conditions for Bicycling and Walking: A Best Practices Report, January 1998.
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, 1995 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Washington, DC, 1995.
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, National Bicycling and Walking Study Five Year Status Report, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1999.
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Law Enforcement Pedestrian Safety, DOT-HS-808-008, NTS-23.
  • Van Houten, R. and L. Malenfant, “ITS Animated LED Signals Alert Drivers to Pedestrian Threats,” ITE Journal, Vol. 71, 2001, pp. 42-47.
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