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APS home go to front of Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Go to Front page Background section Travel by Blind
Other Effects of APS
Blind Pedestrians' Access to Complex Intersections
Project 3-62 Guidelines for Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Comparison of two types of APS
Interfacing Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS) and Traffic Signal Controllers
Wayfinding Technologies for People with Visual Impairments
Comparison of APS signal technologies
Rules & Regulations
Technologies and Features section Types
Walk Indications
Other Features
Choosing and Installing section Where to Install
Designing Installations
New Construction or Reconstruction
Retrofitting an Intersection with an APS
Installation Specifications
Field Adjustments
State of Practices section Case Studies
International Practice
Devices section Manufacturers
Selection Tool
Product Matrix
Downloads section Full Guide
Rating Scales
Field Adjustments

Introduction to APS research

Early devices not research-based
Although APS have been widely used in Japan and Sweden since the 1960s, the early development of APS in those countries was not, as far as these authors have been able to ascertain, based on research.

Nor is there any research basis for the APS most commonly used in the U.S. today.

Key early research
The first substantial research on APS appears to have been done in 1976 by Frank Hulscher, an electrical engineer with the Department of Motor Transport, New South Wales, Australia. Hulscher's research was the basis for the well developed, fully standardized, and highly successful APS system in use in Australia today.

Substantial research on APS in the U.S. began with a project undertaken by the San Diego Association of Governments in 1988. The results of this project were the basis for a policy of implementing standard signals at those intersections in San Diego where a city access committee recommended APS, following a systematic evaluation including use of a rating scale.

Other research
Other notable research has been conducted since 1980 in the U.S. and elsewhere that helps us understand:


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