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APS home go to front of Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Go to Front page Background section Travel by Blind
Other Effects of APS
Blind Pedestrians' Access to Complex Intersections
Project 3-62 Guidelines for Accessible Pedestrian Signals
Comparison of two types of APS
Interfacing Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS) and Traffic Signal Controllers
Wayfinding Technologies for People with Visual Impairments
Comparison of APS signal technologies
Rules & Regulations
Technologies and Features section Types
Walk Indications
Other Features
Choosing and Installing section Where to Install
Designing Installations
New Construction or Reconstruction
Retrofitting an Intersection with an APS
Installation Specifications
Field Adjustments
State of Practices section Case Studies
International Practice
Devices section Manufacturers
Selection Tool
Product Matrix
Downloads section Full Guide
Rating Scales
Field Adjustments

Other effects of APS

Issues for research
Some research has addressed effects of APS on the general pedestrian cohort, on drivers, and on APS neighbors. Issues that need to be researched include the following.
    General pedestrian cohort
  • Initiation of crossing during Walk interval
  • Completion within pedestrian phase
  • Pedestrian crashes
  • Variation in effects attributable to age
  • Variation in effects attributable to other disabilities

  • Drivers
  • Driver behavior
  • Vehicular flow

  • APS neighbors
  • Acceptance
  • Vandalism


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