Walking is such a basic human activity that it has frequently been overlooked
in the quest to build sophisticated transportation systems. Now people want to
change that. They want to live in places that are welcoming, safe, and enjoyable.
They want livable communities where they can walk, bicycle, recreate, and socialize.
Creating a pedestrian environment involves more than laying down a sidewalk or
installing a signal. A truly viable pedestrian system involves both the big picture
and the smallest details — from how a city is built to what materials are
under our feet. Facilities should be accessible to all pedestrians, including
those with disabilities. Accessible design is the foundation for all pedestrian
design and facilities need to be planned, designed, operated, and maintained to
be usable by all people.
A caption for photo goes here.
Because most of the work that will be done involves retrofitting existing places,
improving the pedestrian environment will probably be done on a street-by-street,
Creating a walkable community starts with the very nature of the built environment:
having destinations close to each other; siting schools, parks, and public spaces
appropriately; allowing mixed-use developments; having sufficient densities to
support transit; creating commercial districts that people can access by foot
and wheelchair; and so on. Most walking trips are less than 0.8 km (0.5 mi). While
mixed-use developments with sufficient density to support transit and neighborhood
commercial businesses can make walking a viable option for residents, single-use,
low-density residential land-use patterns discourage walking. When residents are
segregated from sites such as parks, offices, and stores, there will be fewer
pedestrian trips because destinations are not close enough for walking. The connection
between land-use planning and transportation planning is critical, but all too
Design streets for people to use them. Assume people will walk.
Integrating land-use and transportation planning allows new developments to implement
these strategies from the onset. Communities that support balanced transportation
make walking and public transit attractive options.
In established communities, many of these goals can be met with "infill development"
to increase density and community viability. Changes in zoning laws and sidewalk
warrants to allow mixed-use development and pedestrian connections, such as sidewalks,
easy-to-access crosswalks, and shared-use paths, can also increase pedestrian
safety and mobility.
Whether building new infrastructure or renovating existing places, it should always
be assumed that people will walk and plans should be made to accommodate pedestrians.
People will want to walk everywhere they can, and a comfortable, inviting, and
safe environment should be provided for them. There are many reasons that people
walk: to run errands, to visit neighbors, to go to local stores, to take their
children to the local park, for exercise, or even for the sheer enjoyment of being
a pedestrian. Children should be able to walk to school or to their friends' houses.
All of these activities constitute a significant number of trips. About four-fifths
of all trips are non-work-related.
If people aren't walking, it is probably because they are prevented from doing
so. Either the infrastructure is insufficient or has serious gaps. Are there continuous
walkways? Are there physical barriers such as rivers, drainage ways, walls, or
freeways that prevent convenient walking access in a community? Do bridges for
automobiles also provide a safe walking area for pedestrians? Does the lack of
curb ramps or the existence of steep grades or steps prevent access for the elderly
or people in wheelchairs? Are there information barriers preventing people with
visual disabilities from crossing the street? Is there a major road that separates
the residential neighborhood from the commercial district? Are there places for
people to cross roads safely?
A busy commercial street in Ann Arbor, Michigan, emphasizes pedestrian use
and provides attractive areas for people to sit, stroll and meet.
Walking rates in different neighborhoods within the same city are directly related
to the quality of the system. In other words, in high quality pedestrian environments,
lots of people walk. Where the system fails — missing sidewalks, major barriers,
no safe crossings — people walk less, and those who do are at greater risk.
People also want to walk in an environment where they can feel safe, not only
safe from motor vehicle traffic, but safe from crime or other concerns that can
affect personal security. Areas need to be well lit to encourage walking during
evening hours. If the pedestrian system is not accessible, it is often not safe.
For example, lack of access may cause wheelchair users to use the street rather
than a poorly maintained sidewalk. Some populations may be at a higher risk of
pedestrian crashes. Children under age 15 are the most overrepresented group in
pedestrian crashes and people over age 65 have the most pedestrian fatalities.
Therefore, it is especially important to provide adequate facilities in the vicinity
of land uses such as retirement homes and school zones.
The walking environment should be open and inviting, but not sterile and vacant.
Pedestrians need more than sidewalks and crosswalks. In addition to protecting
pedestrians from motor vehicle traffic, it is important to have a secure, pleasant,
and interesting walking environment to encourage people to walk.
Traditionally, safety problems have been addressed by analyzing police crash reports
and improvements have been made only after they are warranted by crash numbers.
However, planners and engineers should consider problem-identification methods
such as interactive public workshops, surveying pedestrians and drivers, and talking
with police to identify safety problems in an area before crashes occur. This
may help proactively identify locations for pedestrian safety improvements and
will involve citizens in the process of improving safety and mobility in their
Walking and transit are complementary. Good walking conditions for pedestrians
are important inducements to using public transportation, since most public transit
trips include a pedestrian trip at one or both ends. People should be able to
walk to a bus stop or a train station from their homes and to jobs, shopping,
and other activities. Conversely, good public transportation, with buses, subways,
and paratransit vehicles that run frequently and are reliable, is essential to
achieving a walkable city. The trip should be as seamless as possible and transit
stops should be friendly, comfortable places. When development occurs around a
transit stop, more transit can be supported, and people will have more options
for how to travel there. Special attention should be paid to how people will get
from the transit stop to their destinations. No matter how convenient the trip
is otherwise, if pedestrians don't feel safe for even a short distance, they will
choose not to go, or to go by another mode (usually driving — and the more
people who drive, the less pedestrian-friendly a place becomes).
Streets serve many functions, including:
- Linkage - They connect parts of cities to each other, one
town to another, and activities and places.
- Transportation - They provide the surface and structure
for a variety of modes. All modes and users should be provided for: pedestrians,
bicyclists, transit, motor vehicles, emergency services, maintenance services,
- Access - They provide public access to destinations.
- Public right-of-way - Space for utilities and other underground
infrastructure is usually a hidden function of the street.
- Sense of place - The street is a definable place, a place
for people to interact, the heart of a community. A street can serve this
role by being a venue for parties, fairs, parades, and community celebrations,
or by simply being a place where neighbors stop to chat.
Streets are often designed to emphasize some functions over others. At one extreme
is a limited-access highway that serves as a corridor for motor vehicle travel.
At the other extreme is a private cul-de-sac, which has no linkage and has limited
access. Many streets are designed so that certain desirable functions are not
provided. Examples include commercial streets where access to destinations is
difficult, and strip development along high-speed roads where no sidewalks or
pedestrian crossings exist.
When streets and roads are evaluated for improvements, it is helpful to consider
whether the design effectively meets all the desired functions of the roadway.
If not, the street should be redesigned to adequately meet those functions.
High volumes of traffic can inhibit a person's feeling of safety and comfort and
create a "fence effect" where the street is almost an impenetrable barrier.
The effect of traffic volumes on community life has been measured. In his seminal
1980 study, Donald Appleyard looked at how traffic volumes on comparable streets
in San Francisco affected community life. People living on a street with light
traffic (2,000 vehicles per day) had three times as many friends and twice as
many acquaintances on the street as did people living on a street with heavy traffic
(16,000 vehicles a day).
This roadway may act as a barrier to pedestrians. Those who are walking along
the waterfront may find it difficult to cross to the commercial establishments,
and those on the commercial side may be reluctant to cross to the waterfront.
Traffic speed is usually the more critical aspect to walkability and safety. Though
pedestrians may feel comfortable on streets that carry a significant amount of
traffic at low speeds, faster speeds increase the likelihood of pedestrians being
hit. At higher speeds, motorists are less likely to see a pedestrian, and even
less likely to actually stop in time to avoid a crash. At a mere 49.9 km/h (31
mi/h), a driver will need about 61.0 m (200 ft) to stop, which may exceed available
sight distance; that number is halved at 30.6 km/h (19 mi/h).
Unfortunately, most of our streets are designed to encourage higher traffic speeds.
Fortunately, we do have tools that can change this, primarily by redesigning streets
through traffic calming or by designing new streets with lower design speeds.
Speed reductions can increase pedestrian safety considerably. The safety benefits
of reduced speeds extend to motorists and cyclists as well, although the advantage
to pedestrians is the most substantial.
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed to ensure that all people,
including those with disabilities, have equal access to transportation. People
with disabilities may have limited visual and cognitive ability, or a combination
of disabilities, which is more common as a person grows older. A person may experience
a disability on a permanent or temporary basis. Without accessible pedestrian
facilities, people with disabilities will have less opportunities to engage in
employment, school, shopping, recreation, and other everyday activities. New or
altered facilities must provide access for all pedestrians. This also needs to
occur when implementing all the tools and treatments that are presented in this
While improvements for persons with disabilities were mandated by the Federal
Government to ensure access and mobility for physically challenged pedestrians,
most of these improvements benefit all pedestrians. Some of the items that will
be presented in this guide, such as adequate time to cross streets, well-designed
curb ramps, limited driveways, and sidewalks that are wide and clear of obstructions
and have minimal cross-slope, are examples of design features that will accommodate
pedestrians with disabilities, persons using strollers, and indeed, all pedestrians.
All new construction or retrofit projects must include curb ramps that comply
with ADA requirements. Agencies should review their street system to identify
other barriers to accessibility and prioritize the needed improvements. Examples
of barriers that are often overlooked include poles and signs in the middle of
a sidewalk, steeply sloped driveways, and interruptions such as broken or missing
sidewalk sections. An adequate level of surveillance and maintenance can also
be important to providing accessibility, especially in winter months in areas
where snow accumulates. While all streets should be upgraded to be accessible,
public agencies should set priorities for high-use areas, such as commercial districts,
schools, parks, transit facilities, etc., and retrofit as rapidly as possible.