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Pedestrian Crash and Countermeasure Matrix:
A total of 47 different pedestrian measures are presented in this guide that address
various types of roadway situations. However, engineers and planners may want
further guidance on which pedestrian measures are appropriate to address certain
types of pedestrian crashes.
Pages 22-25 (in the Pedestrian
Facilities Users Guide) contain a matrix of 12 pedestrian crash groupings,
with a list of 49 possible countermeasures. The final two countermeasures, education
and enforcement, are essential complements to each of the 47
engineering treatments. Although they are not discussed in detail in this
guide, they are addressed in several education and enforcement references. The
dots in the matrix suggest the countermeasures that may be primary candidates
to address a given crash type, which takes into account whether the crash type
occurs at an intersection or midblock location. The secondary benefits are not
included in the matrix. For example, the primary purpose of a pedestrian street
is to address midblock crash types (e.g., dartout, dash). Although a pedestrian
may have the secondary benefit of eliminating a "through vehicle at intersection"
crash type, it is not a suggested treatment for this crash type. Instead, such
countermeasures as mini-circles, intersection diverters, etc., are suggested in
the matrix to address "through vehicle at intersection" crashes.
To illustrate how to use the table, consider the second crash type on the table
("Multiple Threat"). This is a crash involving an unsignalized crossing
on a multi-lane road, where one vehicle stops to let a pedestrian cross the street.
The pedestrian steps into the street in front of the stopped vehicle and then
continues into the adjacent lane in front of an oncoming vehicle and is struck.
The driver of the second vehicle may not see the pedestrian, since the sight distance
is typically blocked by the first (stopped) vehicle.
The chart shows that there are 20 potential countermeasures that may reduce the
probability of this type of crash, depending on the site conditions. These countermeasures
include curb extensions (which improve sight distance between pedestrians and
motorists), pedestrian crossing islands (which provide places of refuge in the
middle of the street), crosswalk enhancements, and other possible countermeasures.
After the four-page countermeasure matrix, a more detailed listing is given for
each crash type that shows potential countermeasures for various possible causes
or problems. For example, for Crash Group 2 (Multiple Threat), three possible
causes or problems contributing to this crash type include:
Motorists view of pedestrian is blocked so motorist fails to yield.
Pedestrian tries to cross high-speed and/or high-volume arterial street.
Pedestrian does not have adequate time to cross multi-lane road way.
A different list of countermeasures is given for each of these three possible
These charts are intended to give general information on candidate measures
that should be considered when trying to reduce a pattern of pedestrian crashes
at a location or roadway section. Many pedestrian crashes are the direct result
of careless or illegal driver behavior and/or unsafe pedestrian behavior. Many
of these crashes cannot necessarily be prevented by roadway improvements alone.
In such cases, pedestrian and/or motorist education
and enforcement activities may be helpful.
For an example of the Pedestrian Crash Matrix, visit the Bicycle Crash Matrix at www.bicyclinginfo.org