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Pedestrian Crash and Countermeasure Matrix:  Crash-Related Countermeasures

A total of 47 different pedestrian measures are presented in this guide that address various types of roadway situations. However, engineers and planners may want further guidance on which pedestrian measures are appropriate to address certain types of pedestrian crashes.

Pages 22-25 (in the Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide) contain a matrix of 12 pedestrian crash groupings, with a list of 49 possible countermeasures. The final two countermeasures, education and enforcement, are essential complements to each of the 47 engineering treatments. Although they are not discussed in detail in this guide, they are addressed in several education and enforcement references. The dots in the matrix suggest the countermeasures that may be primary candidates to address a given crash type, which takes into account whether the crash type occurs at an intersection or midblock location. The secondary benefits are not included in the matrix. For example, the primary purpose of a pedestrian street is to address midblock crash types (e.g., dartout, dash). Although a pedestrian may have the secondary benefit of eliminating a "through vehicle at intersection" crash type, it is not a suggested treatment for this crash type. Instead, such countermeasures as mini-circles, intersection diverters, etc., are suggested in the matrix to address "through vehicle at intersection" crashes.

To illustrate how to use the table, consider the second crash type on the table ("Multiple Threat"). This is a crash involving an unsignalized crossing on a multi-lane road, where one vehicle stops to let a pedestrian cross the street. The pedestrian steps into the street in front of the stopped vehicle and then continues into the adjacent lane in front of an oncoming vehicle and is struck. The driver of the second vehicle may not see the pedestrian, since the sight distance is typically blocked by the first (stopped) vehicle.
The chart shows that there are 20 potential countermeasures that may reduce the probability of this type of crash, depending on the site conditions. These countermeasures include curb extensions (which improve sight distance between pedestrians and motorists), pedestrian crossing islands (which provide places of refuge in the middle of the street), crosswalk enhancements, and other possible countermeasures.
After the four-page countermeasure matrix, a more detailed listing is given for each crash type that shows potential countermeasures for various possible causes or problems. For example, for Crash Group 2 (Multiple Threat), three possible causes or problems contributing to this crash type include:

• Motorist’s view of pedestrian is blocked so motorist fails to yield.
• Pedestrian tries to cross high-speed and/or high-volume arterial street.
• Pedestrian does not have adequate time to cross multi-lane road way.

A different list of countermeasures is given for each of these three possible contributing factors.
These charts are intended to give general information on candidate measures that should be considered when trying to reduce a pattern of pedestrian crashes at a location or roadway section. Many pedestrian crashes are the direct result of careless or illegal driver behavior and/or unsafe pedestrian behavior. Many of these crashes cannot necessarily be prevented by roadway improvements alone. In such cases, pedestrian and/or motorist education and enforcement activities may be helpful.

For an example of the Pedestrian Crash Matrix, visit the Bicycle Crash Matrix at www.bicyclinginfo.org

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Maintained by the Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center with funding from
the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.