Case Study No. 17
University Place, Washington
Prepared by Ben Yazici, City Manager, City of Sammamish, WA; Former Assistant City Manager/ Director of Public Works for City of University Place, WA and Steve Sugg, University Place, WA.
A one mile section of Bridgeport Way in University Place, Washington, was the site of hundreds of traffic collisions between 1995 and 1998, many of which involved pedestrians. Besides being an area that has a history of safety issues for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorists, the road design and aesthetics contributed little to the city's economic development or sense of place.
Bridgeport Way, prior to the redesign, bisects University Place's main commercial area. Image Source: Debbie Klosowski
Bridgeport Way is a significant regional arterial that runs through the middle of University Place. Approximately 25,000 vehicles per day use the corridor, making Bridgeport Way the most heavily traveled roadway in the city. Prior to improvements, the 1.5 mile section that bisects University Place's main commercial area had five undivided traffic lanes (two in each direction and a two-way left-turn lane) with two-foot wide gravel shoulders that placed pedestrians close to vehicular traffic. Over 300 crashes occurred on this road section between 1996 and 1998, ten of which involved pedestrians and 91 resulted in injuries. In addition to the lack of sidewalks, insufficient lighting, absence of bicycle lanes, multiple access points and speeding vehicles increased pedestrian risk and created an unpleasant environment for pedestrians.
Following its incorporation in 1995, the City Council held a series of charrettes to identify residents' vision for the future. Creating a sense of place by developing a thriving, walkable downtown was one of the priorities citizens identified. Subsequently, the council approved a vision statement and goals for land use, economic development and transportation which emphasized walking, bicycling, infill development and aesthetic treatments for roads and developments.
Creating a walkable downtown was named as a top priority. Image Source: Debbie Klosowski
A safer and more pleasant Bridgeport Way was essential to the council's plan for a walkable environment centered on a community gathering place. However, redesigning this major thoroughfare was both a political and physical challenge. The development team wrestled with these issues:
In the summer of 1996, the City of University Place decided to design and construct safety improvements along a portion of Bridgeport Way. With a desire to pursue the goals outlined in the City's adopted Vision Statement, the City of University Place saw an opportunity to rebuild and transform Bridgeport Way into an inviting main street that would allow pedestrians and bicyclists to move about comfortably and safely while still accommodating vehicular movement through the corridor.
The proposed roadway design included the following design elements:
Attracting private sector partners to help create a true downtown was a vital component of the community's vision. However, the City Council realized significant public improvements were needed along Bridgeport Way in order to jumpstart private investment in the area. The goals of the redesign project were to improve safety, increase mobility and cohesiveness, enhance the corridor and control traffic growth.
After obtaining a grant from the Washington State Transportation Improvement Board, the city initiated an extensive public process to redesign Bridgeport Way. Outreach efforts included newspaper, television and website notices; fliers mailed to all property owners; posters; and overhead signs along Bridgeport Way. The resulting design process involved charrettes, public and neighborhood meetings, open houses, a Town Hall Meeting, and a public hearing before the City Council.
Two design alternatives emerged from this process. The first option proposed roundabouts, and the second option included landscaped medians. At the time, no roundabouts had yet been built in Washington; the community was skeptical despite the safety record and cost effectiveness of these facilities in other places. Therefore, the council chose the traditional alternative -- landscaped medians -- for the Bridgeport Way redesign. (Later a test roundabout was installed on another street; roundabouts have since been built throughout the city.)
Although access to local businesses was severely affected by construction of raised median islands, the local Chamber of Commerce worked with the City to convince business owners that the new roadway would provide a much better business climate than the existing road. With this collaborative approach between the City and the Chamber of Commerce, most business owners donated the needed right-of-way to construct this project. The City spent less than $30,000 on right-of-way acquisition to obtain an average 3.1 m (10 ft) strip of the front edge of each commercial property along the roadway. Without cooperation from the businesses, it would have cost the City $500,000 to obtain the right-of-way at fair market value.
University Place also worked with the local utility company to place utility lines underground. The utility company agreed to pay half of the cost, if the City could provide a utility trench as part of the City's construction project. This lowered the City's cost of relocating utility lines underground by as much as $1 million.
The project was completed in 1999 at a total cost of $2.5 million, including design, right-of-way and construction.
Later, from 1998 to 2002, a 1.5 mi section of Bridgeport Way was reconstructed in three phases at a cost of approximately $8.2 million. A road diet reduced travel lanes from five to four, replacing the center two-way left-turn lane with a raised, landscaped median with street lighting. Planter strips along the corridor include streetlights that match the street lights in the median. Bicycle lanes and sidewalks were installed on both sides of the road. Other improvements included:
Bridgeport Way after the redesign.Image Source: Debbie Klosowski
The lane reduction along the corridor resulted in lower motorized vehicle speeds and fewer mid-block crashes. Crashes have been reduced by about 60 percent and average traffic speeds by about 13 percent. Despite greater pedestrian activity and exposure to vehicle traffic, pedestrian crashes did not increase.
The City has analyzed speed, collision and economic development data collected before and after the construction of the Bridgeport Way improvements between 35th and 40th Streets. The project's traffic calming features reduced vehicle speeds and crashes while increasing business activity.
|Change||35 mi/h (6 km/h)||35 mi/h (56 km/h)||Same|
|Average Actual Speed||37.6 mi/h (1 km/h)||32.6 mi/h (52 km/h)||-13 %|
|Average Annual Crashes||19||8 (first year)||-60 %|
Prior to the project's implementation, very few pedestrians walked along or crossed the roadway because there were no sidewalks, crosswalks or paved shoulders. Increased pedestrian activity is evidenced by the over 3,200 pedestrians using the two new mid-block crosswalks each month. The City is considering upgrading the south crosswalk flashing pedestrian beacon to a fully signalized crosswalk to improve safety at that location. Yet, despite a dramatic increase in the level of pedestrian activity on the street and the increased exposure to motor vehicle traffic, the frequency of pedestrian crashes has remained constant at about 2.5 crashes per year.
Physical changes along Bridgeport Way were instrumental in jumpstarting private sector economic development efforts, although the proposed Town Center project is still in flux. Public sector improvements such as a new civic building, library, parking garage and infrastructure are near completion. Studies indicated an increase in business revenues along the project corridor of approximately seven percent (citywide revenue increased five percent in the same period). Sales tax revenues along the corridor increased by 1.24 percent in 1997 (the year before construction), 7.73 percent in 1998, 5.64 percent in 1999, and 8.39 percent in 2000.
Approximately 20 percent of the Bridgeport Way project was paid for with local funds; 80 percent of the project was funded with grants from the Washington State Transportation Improvement Board, Washington State Department of Transportation, Puget Sound Regional Council, the Federal Highway Administration and other agencies. Tacoma Public Utilities paid half the cost of relocating the utility lines underground. In addition, business owners along the corridor donated the needed right-of-way, a value of approximately $500,000.
|1998-1999||$2,215,103 for engineering, right of way, construction and inspection|
|1999-2000||$2,672,955 for engineering, right of way, construction and inspection|
|2001-2002||$3,348,458 for engineering, right of way, construction and inspection|
Steve Sugg, Interim City Manager, or Jack Ecklund, City Engineer
City of University Place
3715 Bridgeport Way West
University Place, WA 98466